As far as the current power steering system and the information that can be seen on the car can be roughly classified into three categories,
(1) The first type of mechanical hydraulic power steering system;
(2) The second type is the electronic hydraulic power steering system;
(3) The third type of electric power steering system.
First, the mechanical hydraulic power steering system 1. Mechanical hydraulic power steering system is generally composed of hydraulic pump, tubing, pressure flow control valve body, V-type transmission belt, storage tanks and other components.
2. Whether the car is turning or not, this system must work, and when the large steering speed is low, the hydraulic pump needs to output more power to obtain a relatively large boost. Therefore, resources have also been wasted to some extent. It can be recalled: Driving such a car, especially when turning at a low speed, feels that the direction is relatively heavy, and the engine is also relatively strenuous. Because of the high pressure of the hydraulic pump, it is also easier to damage the booster system.
In addition, the mechanical hydraulic power steering system is composed of a hydraulic pump, a pipeline, and an oil cylinder. In order to maintain the pressure, the system always needs to work in a working state with high energy consumption. This is also one of the causes of resource consumption.
General economical cars use more mechanical hydraulic boosting systems.
Second, the electronic hydraulic power steering system 1. The main components: oil tanks, power steering control unit, electric pumps, steering gear, power steering sensors, etc., which power steering control unit and electric pump is an overall structure.
2. Working principle: The electronic hydraulic steering assist system overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional hydraulic steering assist system. The hydraulic pump it uses is no longer directly driven by the engine belt. Instead, it uses an electric pump. All its working states are calculated by the electronic control unit according to the vehicle's travel speed, steering angle and other signals. Simply speaking, at low speed and large steering, the electronic control unit drives the electronic hydraulic pump to output high power at high speeds to make the driver save the direction; when the vehicle is driving at high speed, the hydraulic control unit drives the electronic hydraulic pump at a lower speed. The operation saves a portion of engine power while not affecting the need for high-speed steering. It is the use of a more general power steering system.
Third, electric power steering system (EPS)
1. The full English name is Electronic Power Steering, abbreviated EPS, which uses the power generated by the motor to assist motorists in power steering. The composition of the EPS, different vehicles, although the structural components are not the same, but generally similar. It is generally composed of a torque (steering) sensor, an electronic control unit, a motor, a speed reducer, a mechanical steering device, and a livestock battery power source.
2. The main working principle: when the car is turning, the torque (steering) sensor will â€œfeelâ€ the steering wheel torque and the direction of the rotation, these signals will be sent to the electronic control unit through the data bus, the electronic control unit will be based on the drive The data signals such as the torque and the direction to be transferred are sent to the motor controller so that the motor can output a corresponding amount of rotational torque according to the specific requirements, thereby generating power steering. If you do not turn, the system will not work, in the standby state waiting for the call. Due to the operating characteristics of electric power steering, you will feel that driving such a car has a better sense of direction and is more stable at high speeds. As the saying goes, the direction is not to float. And because it does not work without turning, it also saves energy to a certain extent. General high-end cars use such a power steering system more.
The so-called electronic power steering means that the steering power of the steering system is provided by the electric motor; and the hydraulic assistance means that the steering power of the steering system is provided by the hydraulic pressure generated by the hydraulic pump.
Electronic power steering is the power that is consumed, and the power is generated by the engine that powers the generator. This energy conversion efficiency is relatively high, so the energy loss is small, so the engine power loss is also small. However, electronic power steering also has its limitations. The reason is that the power generated by the vehicle's generator is limited, so the available steering energy is also limited.
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